One of the arguments for acting sooner rather than later on monetary policy is that if the slack disappears, inflationary expectations will surge.
This is an implication of Orphanides latest “Short-sighted monetary policy and fear of liftoff”:
Monetary policy operates with long and variable lags. According to some Fed models, the maximum effect is around two years after a policy action. The Fed has been adding accommodation with quantitative easing up until less than a year ago, which will continue to stimulate the economy and push inflation upward well into 2016. Policy needs to be pre-emptive. The degree of policy accommodation should be reduced to avoid an overheated economy which would surely destabilise inflation and make a recession more likely (for a more detailed exposition, see Orphanides 2015).
We have all these “unseens” informing monetary policy. The fact is that they are useless. No one knows (or sees) the natural rate, be it of interest, unemployment or output. Furthermore, the uncertainty around their estimates is huge!
To account for that “ignorance” it has become standard to appeal to long and variable lags. However, what if instead of lags, monetary policy operates with leads.
For example, Orphanides says: “The Fed has been adding accommodation with quantitative easing up until less than a year ago, which will continue to stimulate the economy and push inflation upward well into 2016.”
What if we find that even before the end of the taper in October 2014, monetary policy was being “tightened”, despite interest rates remaining at the ZLB?
How could we know? Certainly not by looking at “ghosts” like “slack” or “natural rates”. Bernanke himself has said that to gauge the stance of monetary policy you should look at things such as NGDP growth or inflation.
And those gauges tell us that for more than one year monetary policy has not been “easy” or “accommodative”, quite the opposite!
One-year ahead NGDP growth expectations and medium and long-term inflation expectations are all trending down.
So are actual NGDP growth and inflation!
Update: Want to see more evidence of policy tightening? Here goes.
Commodity prices are on a downshute while the dollar is reaching for the stars!
Today, Lars Christensen tweeted this as “book of the day“. To grasp the evidence given upstairs, it is highly reccommended.